As I was growing up, that universal view was the only one I could see. It surrounded me in popular culture and at school. I grew up looking at the covers of Life magazine that featured paintings by Norman Rockwell depicting "everyday" America. This was a land of the free and home of the brave—you could see it in his paintings.
|Rockwell, Freedom of Speech|
The artist called this one, Freedom of Speech as one of the Four Freedoms that President Franklin Roosevelt declared in early 1941 as America was headed towards its second global war. The full set were the freedom of speech, the freedom of worship, the freedom from want, and the freedom from fear. Simple, iconic, and asserting American goals for the conflict.
Such images were part of growing up in America during the 1950s and 1960s, and framed the mythology we sought to embrace. But while myths may contain truth, often in aspiration, they do not depict reality. For almost all of our history we have not even been close to being a democratic nation.
Africans in America and their descendants were held as property without any rights until 1865. Their moment of liberation was soon spoiled as Jim Crow laws and white mobs forced them back into a fearful, servile state. Most descended into a different form of bondage, that of debt servitude as sharecroppers. They soon lost access to the franchise as whites intimidated them with mob violence and the threat of the noose.
Nor could women vote or hold office. Their situation was different because they suffered while sharing a bed with their oppressors. A woman's wedding vows often contained the word "obey" as she pledged her life to her husband. Upon marriage, a woman's property—if any—became the property of her husband. Was she property herself? Many men thought so and acted as if she were.
Some will point out that in 1920 women gained the right to vote and by 1965 the Civil Rights and Voting Rights acts dismantled Jim Crow and protected the franchise. Even accepting that as evidence of democratic reality, as a nation we were by no means a democracy from 1776 to 1965.
The question remains, are we a democracy today? Are we equally represented in our federal government. Not by a long shot.
A voter in Wyoming has more than three times the power than a voter in North Carolina in presidential elections. In each of the Dakotas and Alaska, their power is twice that of my state. Lest we consider this a mere partisan measure, both Hawaii and Vermont have similar influence.
This situation is because of an ancient compromise that created the Electoral College, giving each state votes based on their representation in Congress. The imbalance is because the Senate gives each state two senators no matter the size of their population. That means that California with over 39 million voters has the same voting power as Wyoming—resulting in a state with 12% of the total population holding the same clout as a state with 0.17% of the people.
But we cannot stop there. Efforts to draw and redraw voting districts after the 2010 Census have gerrymandered many voters from having equal voting power. Because of the efforts of the GOP in North Carolina, our state legislature is dominated by Republicans even though the voters are evenly split overall between the parties. Republicans drew new maps that created districts to guarantee them a majority of the seats ever since.
Finally, there is the issue of money. Wealthy people have always had access to the levers of government and their voices are always heard first and clearest. But in 2010, that power was supercharged in a Supreme Court decision, Citizens United v. FEC, that declared corporations were legally people and therefore entitled to speech under the First Amendment. In practical terms that meant that the largest concentrations of wealth in America could vocally advocate for public policy and on behalf of candidates. Or even themselves. This election cycle we have seen several billionaires fund their own campaigns for president.
So, are we a democracy? The most optimistic answer is, not yet.